1. Site – avoid locations that could create problems in the future, e.g., nearby chemical works, rivers that may flood, farming environments. The latter are a significant risk if animals are close by. Transport of contaminants on footwear into the plant can be a big issue and there is a higher risk of pest infestation, both from flying insects and rodents. Many bottling plants are located on farmland where the spring source originates.
2. Building – the building must be fit for purpose and approved for food production. It is unwise to use converted barns and the building should be purpose built. A high-risk area should be defined within the building where product in open bottles is present. The bottling plant should be sealed off from the external environment and no external doors should open directly to the outside. Windows should be non-opening preferably or, at least , fitted with insect grills. Glass should be strengthened and shatter-proof, this applies to windows, doors and lighting. Drains should be fitted with traps and kept clear of blockage. Toilets and canteen areas should not open directly into the plant area. A hygiene and cleaning schedule needs to be created for the whole building based on the risk analysis highlighted by the HACCP programme. External areas should be policed for excessive rubbish accumulation and encroachment of vegetation.